Tuesday, November 26, 2013

Result Part-1 FCPS November 7, 2013

CPSP has announced the result of Part-1 FCPS,  November 7 attempt, 2013

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Mechanoreceptors and their Functions

Mechanoreceptors refer to sensory receptors that sense mechanical changes in the body such as pressure, vibration, stretching or distortion. Mechanoreceptors may be encapsulated or unencapsulated receptors. Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner's corpuscles and Ruffini's corpuscles are encapsulated while Merkel's disk and free nerve endings are unencapsulated mechanoreceptors.
Important mechanoreceptors with their properties are listed below in the table.

Sensation carried
Pacinian Corpuscle
Onion like structure; lies in subcutaneous tissue; Encapsulated
Vibration; tapping
Rapidly adapting
Meissner’s Corpuscle
Present in non-hairy skin; Encapsulated
Rapidly adapting
Ruffini’s Corpuscle (Bulbous Corpuscle)
Spindle shaped; Encapsulated
Pressure; skin stretch
Slowly adapting
Merkel’s Disk
Transducer lies on epithelial cells; Unencapsulated
Location; two-point discrimination
Slowly adapting
Free Nerve Endings
Resemble fine plant roots; Unecapsulated
Different rate of adaptation
Keywords: Mechanorecptors, Sensory receptors, Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner's corpuscles, Ruffini's corpuscles, Merkel's disk, Free nerve endings

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Part-1 FCPS Feb 12, 2014

The next coming examination of FCPS Part-I will be held on February 12, 2014 on Wednesday. Exam in divided in two parts: paper-I and paper-II. The duration of each paper will be 3 hours. Paper-I will be of 3 hours from 9:00 AM to 12:00 Noon and paper-II will be from 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM.

Also, you may check more examination dates by CPSP in 2014.

Keywords: FCPS Part-I 2014, February 2014, Part- exam by CPSP

Part-I FCPS Examination Dates for Year 2014

This post contains the screen-shot of examination dates for FCPS Part-I for year 2014.

Keywords: FCPS Part-1 examination dates, CPSP exam dates 2014, FCPS exam 2014

Result of Certificate in Medical Teaching

This post contains the result of 1st batch of "Certificate in Medical Teaching" held under university of health sciences Lahore.

Keywords: Medical teaching certificate, UHS, Result of medical teaching

UHS News

First selection list MBBS session 2013-14
Result of Certificate in Medical Teaching
1st International Conference of PhD Fellows/Scholars of Health Sciences
Prospectus 2013-14
Check entrance test result 2013
Syllabus of Medical/Dental colleges for entrance test 2013

Friday, November 15, 2013

What ia Carcinoid Tumour?

Source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

Carcinoid tumours are neuro-endocrine tumors commonly occur in appendix, other GIT parts and less commonly in bronchus, testis and ovary. In the small intestine, most often, carcinoid tumors are found in terminal two feet of ileum. They are found in crypts of Lieberkuhn and arise from the enterochromaffin cells. They comprise of the cells that secrete vasoactive peptides and are capable of APUD. APUD is abbreviation of amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation. Appendix carcinoid tumor is usually single. They cause luminal obstruction and thus patients present with the features of appendicitis. Small intestinal carcinoid tumors are multiple in 40% cases. Rectal carcinoids are more common than colon carcinoids. 

Types of small bowel carcinoids 

Foregut carcinoids: These include bronchial, thymic, gastroduodenal and pancreatic carcinoids. These produce low levels of serotonin.

Midgut carcinoids: These include jejunal, ileal, appendiceal and right colic carcinoids. These have potential to secrete high levels of serotonin.

Hindgut carcinoids: These include distal colon carcinoids and those which involve the rectum. 

Clinical Features:

  • Most often they are asymptomatic
  • They may present with abdominal pain, features of intestinal obstruction.
  • Hind gut or colon carcinoids present with symptoms of constipation, bleeding per rectum and rectal tenesmus.
  • When secodaries are developed in the liver, forty percent patients develop carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid syndrome results due to the release of 5HT, kinins, prostaglandins, histamine and indoles. Features of carcinoid syndrome include diarrhoea, flushing, cyanosis, asthmatic attacks, hepatomegaly and cardiac lesion on right side.

Thursday, November 14, 2013

What is Retrosternal Goiter?

Source: www.commons.wikimedia.org
First of all we are to know that what is goiter. Enlarged (swollen) thyroid gland is known as goiter. And, now we are to dig-out that what are the meanings of retrosternal goiter. When more than 50% of enlarged thyroid tissue is found below suprasternal notch behind the sternum, it is called retrosternal goiter. It might be primary or secondary retrosternal goiter. Primary goiter arises from the ectopic thyroid tissue present in mediastinum while secondary retrosternal goiter is just the extension of the enlarged thyroid from the neck. The patient may show hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidsim symptoms. 


There are three types of retrosternal goiter, substernal type, plunging type and intrathoracic goiter. Substernal type of retrosternal goiter can be felt as a palpable nodule in the lower neck. Sometimes intrathoracic goiter is pushed onto the neck due to the increased intrathoracic pressure. While in intathoracic goiter, all the thyroid tissues are present in the thorax and the neck looks normal. Diagnosis can be made clinically by noticing the clinical features or signs and symptoms of goiter.

What is your diagnosis?

A 35 years old female patient presented to E/A with unconsciousness and was diagnosed as a case of stroke. On examination she had feet with the following congenital condition. What is this condition called?

Answer: This condition is called polydactyly. It refers to having more than fiver fingers or more than five toes. In this image, the patient's foot shoes six toes. It can be sporadic, or caused by genetic defect or underlying genetic syndrome.
Keywords: Polydactyly, Genetic, Congenital condition, Diagnosis

Does Food Cause Acne?

Source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

Often, you may happen to hear from your parents and the grandparents forbidding you for eating greasy foods or chocolates. However, there is no link between food and acne scars that is evident from scientific studies [1]. In simple words, food does not cause acne as there is no scientific proof that food causes acne. Neither has it exacerbated acne. A study shows that the students who used large amount of chocolates, roasted peanuts, milk and coca-cola did not develop any sign of acne. Although vitamin A is beneficial for the skin but the role of diet in the prevention of acne is still questionable. A lot of studies reveal that diet is not the cause of acne [1,2]. So, there are no foods that cause acne.


  1. Wolf R, Matz H, Orion E. Acne and diet. Clin Dermatol 2004;22:387-93.
  2. Cordain L. Implications for the role of diet in acne. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2005;24:84-91.

Keywords: Foods and acne, vitamin A and acne, Foods that cause acne, Acne scars

Dermatomes in Anatomy

What is dermatome?

Dermatome refers to the "area of the body supplied by single spinal nerve". In other words, it is the territory of single sensory nerve originated from the spinal cord. Bear in mind that C1 has NO dermatome.

What is the significance of dermatomes?

The significance of dermatomes is that a physician or a medical professional can check the level of the spinal cord where the problem exists by testing your skin.
Check the image for all the dermatomes located on your body.

Dermatomes (Netter)

Keywords: Dermatomes, Significance of dermatomes, dermatomal map

Monday, November 11, 2013

Part-I FCPS (Gyne/Obs Nov 2013)

This post contains the multiple choice questions (MCQs) those were asked in the Part-I FCPS examination held by CPSP in November 7, 2013. The questions were asked and collected from Facebook pages. Errors and omissions are expected. Also, you can check questions of other subjects like Medicine and Surgery asked in the paper of November 7, 2013.

Keywords: FCPS Part-I exam 2013, Part-1 FCPS Gyne/Obs paper, CPSP gyne/obs paper 2013

Sunday, November 10, 2013

List of Hospitals in Punjab Pakistan

Here is the list of hospitals built and established in Punjab Province Pakistan. This list contains:
  • Teaching Hospitals
  • DHQ Hospitals
  • THQ Hospitals
  • RHCs
  • BHUs

Saturday, November 09, 2013

Notorious Questions of Part-I FCPS (Post-1)

1. Which is the most common type of hepatitis occurring during pregnancy?
A.     Hepatitis A
B.     Hepatitis B
C.     Hepatitis C
D.     Hepatitis D
E.      Hepatitis E
Answer: A (Hepatitis A is most common either it is in the pregnant woman or general population)
2. Which is most fatal type of hepatitis during pregnancy?
A.     Hepatitis A
B.     Hepatitis B
C.     Hepatitis C
D.     Hepatitis D
E.      Hepatitis E
Answer: E (Most fatal type of hepatitis during pregnancy is hepatitis E)
3. An uncovered person is sitting at room temperature. Mechanism of heat loss will be:
A.     Conduction
B.     Sweating
C.     Convection
D.     Radiation
E.      Evaporation
Answer: D (Radiation: heat loss at room-temperature; Conduction: heat loss through direct contact with the body; Convection: when heat flows with a medium
4. High output cardiac failure is associated with:
A.     Riboflavin
B.     Vitamin K
C.     Thiamine
D.     Vitamin C
E.      Vitamin E
Answer: C (High out-put cardiac failure occurs in conditions like Beri-beri, A/V fistula, Hyperthyroidism, Paget’s disease of bone and Severe chronic anemia)
5. A male patient present with injured bulbar urethra. Which where the urine will leak into?
A.     Deep perineal pouch
B.     Fascia lata
C.     Scrotum
D.     Superficial perineal pouch
E.      Ischiorectal fossa
Answer: D (Ruptured penile or bulbar urethra will leak into superficial perineal pouch while ruptured membranous urethra will leak into deep preineal pouch.)
6. Renal blood flow is best measured by the use of which substance?
A.     Inulin
B.     Urea
C.     PABA
D.     Creatinine
E.      PAH
Answer: E (Renal plasma flow is best measured by para-aminohippuric acid [PAH] while glomerular filtration rate [GFR] is measured by Inulin.)
7. Which structure does not pass deep to the flexor retinaculum?
A.     Flexor digitorum profundus
B.     Palmaris longus
C.     Median nerve
D.     Flexor digitorum superficialis
Answer: B (Palmaris longus, ulnar artery and nerve and palmar branch of median nerve)
8. During skeletal muscle contraction which part of the muscle does not shorten?
A.     H band
B.     A band
C.     Sarcomere
D.     Z line
E.      I band
Answer: B (Sarcomere lies between Z lines; A band represents thick fibers and I band refers to thin fibers)
9. Osteosarcoma affects which part of the bone?
A.     Epiphysis
B.     Metaphysis
C.     Diaphysis
D.     Epiphyseal plate
E.      Articular disc
Answer: B (Osteosarcoma and Osteochondroma affect metaphysic; Ewing’s sarcoma and Chondrsarcoma affect diaphysis; Giant cell tumour affects epiphysis)
10. During mitosis chromosomes double in which phase?
A.     Prophase
B.     Metaphase
C.     Anaphase
D.     Telophase
E.      Interphase
Answer: B (Chromosomes double at the end of metaphase; DNA doubles in prophase; Anaphase is the shortest phase of cell division)

Keywords: Part-I FCPS Exam questions, FCPS MCQs, CPSP exam questions, Notorious questions

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